Outra vez Rodrik:
"In many (...) parts of the world (...) we have observed a rather curious and unwelcome development in recent decades – structural change in the wrong direction. Modern, high-productivity industries have come to employ a smaller share of the economy’s labor force, while informal and other low-productivity activities have expanded. For example, since around 1990, structural change in the typical Latin American and Sub-Saharan African country has undermined rather than boosted growth..
"Appropriate policies can help. One lesson is to avoid premature collapse of import-competing industries that employ substantial numbers of people before sufficient employment opportunities have emerged in more productive industries. Asian countries, for instance, have typically liberalized at the margin (through export subsidies or special economic zones), spurring new export industries without pulling the rug from under the rest.
"Second, the exchange rate is vitally important. Competitive currencies promote and protect modern tradable industries that employ a substantial share of the labor force. We found in our research that countries with competitive currencies were much more likely to experience growth-enhancing structural change.
"Finally, flexible labor-market policies seem to be important, too. Legal requirements that significantly increase the costs of hiring and firing labor discourage employment creation in new industries.
"Structural change does not automatically accelerate economic development. It needs a nudge in the appropriate direction, especially when a country has a strong comparative advantage in natural resources. Globalization does not alter this underlying reality. But it does increase the costs of getting the policies wrong, just as it increases the benefits of getting them right."